|About 8000 B.C.
settle Lake Superior region after retreat of Wisconsin
B. C., Laurel people are trading local metal ware for goods from other regions.
|Between 1100 and
build "Pukaskwa pits," mysterious circular stone
features found on east
By early 1600s, the Ojibway have established a village of several thousand on Madeline Island.
|1622: Brule and Grenoble are the first whites to see Lake Superior.||1632: Lake Superior, and its connection to Lake Huron, is first shown on a published map.||1641:Two
missionaries visit the falls between Huron and
Superior and give the
a new name: Sault de Ste. Marie.
1647: First reference to lake as "Superieur" is published.
arrive on Michigan shore.
1658: Radisson and Groseilliers begin a two-year expedition around Lake Superior.
|1660: Radisson and
return to Quebec with vast quantities of fur.
1662: Aliance of Anishinabe tribes win decisive battle over Iroquis just west of Sault Ste. Marie, ending period of Iroquis raids from east.
|1670: Hudson Bay
significant fur trading in Lake Superior region
Late 1670s: Sieur Duluth helps reopen Lake Superior to trade after years of warfare between Sioux and Chippewa, Huron, and Ottawa.
mission has been established at the site of modern
1689: War breaks out between Great Britain and France, dooming the Lake Superior fur trade for several years.
|1696: Price of furs collapses. King Louis XIV revokes all fur-trade licenses and prohibits colonials from bringing goods into Lake Superior region.|
|1700-09: Quiet period as fur-trading temporarily slows.||1717: The French establish the first of three new fur-trading posts on Lake Superior.||1726: At a fort on Lake Nipigon, French explorer La Verendrye learns of a route to the Sea of the West, up the Pigeon River, via Grand Portage.||1731: French explorer La Verendrye sets off on the Grand Portage route, taking the French flag west to the Rocky Mountains.||1740s: Many French explorers and traders adopt customs of natives, and sometimes marry native women, developing bonds that will cause natives to side with French against their European rivals.||1759: The last French garrison on Lake Superior, at La Pointe on Madeline Island, is given up in the French-Indian War.||1763: Britain's
in the French
& Indian War gives it control of the Lake Superior
1768: Land cleared for Grand Portage.
|1770: Alexander Henry organizes a mining company and begins exploring for copper at Pointe aux Pins, Ontonagon, and Michipicoten.||1780s: Grand
quarters for the North West Co.
1783: Having learned of its wealth of copper, Ben Franklin helps negotiate a deal giving Isle Royale to the United States.
|1793: The first Soo Locks (to bypass the St. Marys rapids) are constructed at Sault Ste. Marie.|
|1803: North West
of Fort William.
1807: Irishman John Johnston publishes the best early account of the region: "An Account of Lake Superior, 1792-1807."
|1812: During the War of 1812, the British hide warship in Isle Royale's protected bays.||1821: Hudson's Bay
and the North
West Co. merge. The merged company's Superior base is
on the Michi-
|1835: The schooner
Astor is launched, becoming the largest boat to
date to ply Lake
1835-37: Fish stations are established on Isle Royale and around Lake Superior by the American Fur Co.
|1842: The Webster
establishes the international boundary through Lake
1842: The American Fur Co. fails.
|1850s: The Upper
mines produce about 80% of the nation's copper.
1854: Chief Buffalo signs treaty giving up Ojibway claims to Madeline Island.
1855: Completion of Soo Locks links Lake Superior navigation to the world.
1856: Wheeler Superior smashes into cliffs at Pictured Rocks, killing 50.
of "gentleman anglers" to Lake Superior to fish for
1868: Silver is discovered on Silver Islet, off the Sibley Penisula. For the next fifteen years, it is the world's greatest silver mine.
|1875: Logging begins on the Canadian shore. Logging of pines continues on south shore.||1880s: The Canadian
is constructed, bringing settlers to the lake's north
1885: A record 112 tons of sturgeon are taken from Lake Superior.
1885: Algoma shipwreck on Isle Royale kills 45.
1889: The Huron Mountain Club is established by wealthy Marquette residents.
|1890s: Logging of
is mostly over and logging of Mn. north shore red and
1897: A gold rush near Wawa, Ontario yields millions of dollars worth of gold.
1898: The first wave of wealthy summer residents arrive on Madeline Island.
observed on the Slate Islands, where they continue to
Canada & U. S. sign Boundary Waters Treaty, promising to limit pollution into Lake Superior.
|1916: World record
lbs.) caught below Lake Nipigon.
1918: Fire in Duluth kills 400 and destroys city's waterfront and nearby towns.
1919: The grandest home on Superior shores, Granot Loma on the Keweenaw Penisula, is constructed by Louis Kaufman.
boom along the north shore.
U. S. & Canada end the
commercial fishing of sturgeon.
|1930: Last woodland
for rare migrants) seen on Mn's north shore.
1939: Near Marquette,
first sea lamprey identified in Lake Superior.
|1940: Isle Royale
1941: 28 German Luftwaffe officers and U-boat captains escape from a POW camp on the Coldwell Penisula, Ont.
1944: Section of road between Jackfish Bay and Batchawana Bay is finished, opening up Lake Superior Circle Route travel.
Late 1940s: Wolves arrive on Isle Royale.
|1959: St. Lawrence
introducing salt-water shipping (and later non-indige-
|1962: Lake trout
90% in a decade.
1966: Coho salmon first planted in Lake Superior.
tion of North West Co. fort at Grand Portage is destroyed by fire.
|1970: Thunder Bay
formed by the
merger of Fort William and Port Arthur.
1972: Last log run of tug from Grand Marais to Ashland.
1972: Canada and U.S. sign Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
1975: The Edmund Fitzgerald sinks, killing 29 crew-
|1980: Isle Royale
density of wolves in world, then within a few years
1980: After long court battle, Reserve Mining in Silver Bay, Mn ends discharge of taconite tailing in Lake Superior.
1983: Pukaskwa National Park opens in Ontario.
|1990s: The Superior
a 280-mile continuous footpath from Duluth to Canadian
1999: Massive blowdown in BWCA alters Mn. north shore ecosystem.