The purpose of the defense will be to set before you all available facts
and information from every branch of science to aid you informing an opinion
of what evolution is, and of what value to progress and confort is the
theory of evolution, for you are the judged of the law and the facts, and
the defense wishes to aid you in every way to intelligent opinion.
The defense denies that it is part of any movement or conspiracy on the part of scientists to destroy the authority of Christianity or the Bible. The defense denies that any such conspiracy exists except in the mind and purpose of the evangelical leader of the prosecution. The defense maintains that the book of Genesis is in part a hymn, in part an allegory and work of religious interpretations written by men who believe that the earth was flat and whose authority cannot be accepted to control the teachings of science in our schools.
The narrow purpose of the defense is to establish the innocence of the defendant Scopes. The broad purpose of the defense will be to prove that the Bible is a work of religious aspiration and rules of conduct which must be kept in the field of theology.
The defense maintains that there is no more justification for imposing the conflicting views of the Bible on courses of biology than there would be for imposing the views of biologists on courses of comparative religion. We maintain that science and religion embrace two separate and distinct fields of thought and learning.
We remember that Jesus said: "Render unto Ceasar's the things that are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's."
Q--Of this year?
A--Yes, sir; of this year. He said that the earth was once a hot molten mass too hot for plant or animal life to exist upon it; in the sea the earth cooled off; there was a little germ of one cell organism formed, and this organism kept evolving until it got to be a pretty good-sized animal, and then came on to be a land animal and it kept on evolving, and from this was man.
Q--Let me repeat that; perhaps a little stronger than you. If I don't get it right, you correct me.
Hays--Go to the head of the class....
Stewart--I ask you further, Howard, how did he classify man with reference to other animals; what did he say about them?
A--Well, the book and he both classified man along with cats and dogs, cows, horses, monkeys, lions, horses and all that.
Q--What did he say they were?
Q--Classified them along with dogs, cats, horses, monkeys and cows?
Cross examination by Mr. Darrow:
Q--Let's see, your name is what?
Q--Now, Howard, what do you mean by classify?
A--Well, it means classify these animals we mentioned, that men were just the same as them, in other words--
Q--He didn't say a cat was the same as a man?
A--No, sir: he said man had a reasoning power; that these animals did not.
Q--There is some doubt about that, but that is what he said, is it? (Laughter in the courtroom.)
Stewart--With some men.
Darrow--A great many.
Q--Now, Howard , he said they were all mammals, didn't he?
Q--Did he tell you what a mammal was, or don't you remember?
A--Well, he just said these animals were mammals and man was a mammal.
Q--No; but did he tell you what distinguished mammals from other animals?
A--I Don't remember.
Q--If he did, you have forgotten it? Didn't he say that mammals were those beings which suckled their young?
A--I don't remember about that .
Q--You don't remember?
Q--Do you remember what he said that made any animal a mammal, what it was or don't you remember?
A--I don't remember.
Q--But he said that all of them were mammals?
Q--Dogs and horses, monkeys, cows, man, whales, I cannot state all of them, but he said all of those were mammals?
A--Yes, sir; but I don't know about the whales; he said all those other ones. (Laughter in the courtroom.)
Q--Well, did he tell you anything else that was wicked?
A--No, not that I remember of....
Q--Now, he said the earth was once a molten mass of liquid, didn't he?
Q--By molten, you understand melted?
Q--After that, it got cooled enough and the soil came, that plants grew; is that right?
A--Yes, sir, yes, sir.
Q--And that the first life was in the sea.
Q--And that the first life wsas in the sea.
Q--And that it developed into life on the land?
Q--And finally into the highest organism which is know to man?
Q--Now, that is about what he taught you?
Q--It has not hurt you any, has it?