||In the Treaty of Traverse
Sioux, Two bands of Dakota
the U.S. lands in southwestern portions of the Minnesota
well as portions of Iowa and South Dakota) for $1.665
million in cash
|August 5, 1851
||In the Treaty of Mendota,
other band of Dakota cede to
lands in southeastern portions of the Minnesota Territory
in cash and annuities.
||7,000 Dakota are moved to
reservations bordering the
River in southwestern Minnesota.
||A renegade band of Dakota
kill forty Americans in
in what is called "the Spirit Lake Massacre."
||The Dakota cede additional
land on the north bank of the
River, reducing the size of their reservation.
||Annuity payments are late
rumors circulate that
they will be made at all, will not be in the customary
gold because of
the ongoing Civil War. Dakota plan to demand that future
be made directly to them, rather than through
of plan, refuse to sell provisions on credit, despite
and starvation on the reservation. At a meeting
called by Indian
Agent Thomas Galbraith to resolve the impasse, Andrew
for the traders, says: "So far as I am concerned, if they
them eat grass."
|August 17, 1862
||Four Dakota kill five
settlers near Litchfield.
held among the Dakota on whether to wage war.
on the issue, war is the chosen course.
|August 18, 1862
||Groups of Dakota kill 44
Americans in attacks on the
and on federal troops advancing to the Agency in the hope
the uprising. Ten Americans are captured.
|August 19, 1862
||Minnesota Governor Ramsey
appoints Col. Henry Sibley to
American volunteer forces.Sixteen settlers are killed in
in and around New Ulm. Settlers crowd into a small
barricaded area of
Ulm's main street.
|August 20-21, 1862
||Dakota attack Fort
but the Fort is successfully
|August 23, 1862
||About 650 Dakota attack
Ulm a second time. Most
in the town are burned. Although 34 die and 60 are
is successfully defended.
|August 25, 1862
||About 2,000 New Ulm
(mostly women, children, and
men) load into 153 wagons or set off on foot for Mankato,
|September 2, 1862
||In the Battle of Birch
(near Morton), American
their greatest casualties of the war.
|September 6, 1862
||Major General John Pope,
having recently lost the Battle
Run, is appointed commander of U.S. troops in the
suppressing the Dakota uprising.
|September 23, 1862
||The battle of Wood Lake is
decisive victory for American
While the Wood Lake fighting is in progress, Dakota
of the war take control of 269 American captives held near
|September 26, 1862
captives. Col. Sibley
Dakota camp and takes 1200 Dakota men, women, and children
Over the next weeks, and additional 800 Dakota will
forces. In 37 days of fighting, the Dakota Conflict
lives of over 500 Americans and about 60 Dakota.
|September 28, 1862
||Sibley appoints a
military commission to "try
Dakota for "murder and other outrages" committed against
Sixteen trials take place the same day. Ten Dakota
and sentenced to be hanged, six are acquitted. Over
the next six
weeks, 393 Dakota are tried.
|October 14, 1862
||At President Lincoln's
cabinet meeting, the ongoing Dakota
are discussed. Lincoln and several cabinet members
by General Pope's report on the trials and planned
executions, and move
to prevent precipitous action.
|October 17, 1862
||General Pope tells Sibley
that "the President directs that
be made without his sanction."
|November 3, 1862
||The last of 393 trials is
conducted, with 42 trials taking
on the last day. In all, 323 Dakota are convicted
and 303 are
to be hanged. All but 8 of those acquitted remained
|November 9, 1862
||The 303 condemned Dakota
moved from the Lower Agency
Lincoln, near Mankato. While passing through New
are attacked by an angry mob. A few Dakota are
killed and many
(Meanwhile, the 1700 uncondemned are moved to Fort
Snelling, near St.
|November 10, 1862
||Pope forwards to the
President names of those
asks for "a full and complete record of their convictions"
statement" indicating "the more guilty and influential of
|November 15, 1862
||Pope forwards records of
trials to President Lincoln,
with a letter urging Lincoln to authorize execution of all
and warning of mob violence if the executions did not go
|Late November, 1862
||Rev. Riggs and Bishop
urge clemency for Dakota
in battles and executions only for those proven to have
or killed women or children.
|December 4, 1862
||Several hundred civilians,
armed with hatchets, clubs, and
attack the camp where the condemned Dakota are being held,
and disarmed by soldiers.
|December 6, 1862
||President Lincoln issues
order allowing only 39 of the
300 executions to go forward. The execution of one
man is suspended later after new evidence casts doubt upon
|December 24, 1862
||The 38 condemned Dakota
allowed to meet with their
for the last time.
|December 26, 1862
||At 10 a.m., the condemned,
singing and chanting Dakota
are led to the scaffolds in Mankato. Three drumbeats
of execution, the crowd cheers. Bodies are buried in
on the edge of town.
||Congress enacts a law
providing for the removal of Dakota
from Minnesota. Most of the Dakota community will be
Dakota. The convicted prisoners who were not
executed are moved
Camp McClellan near Davenport, Iowa.
|March 22, 1866
||President Andrew Johnson
orders release of the 177
|1863 to 1890
||Sioux Wars continue,
ending in the Battle at
South Dakota, in 1890.