SHELBY COUNTY, ALABAMA, PETITIONER v. ERIC H. HOLDER, Jr., ATTORNEY GENERAL, et al.
June 25, 2013
Chief Justice Roberts delivered the opinion of the Court.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 employed extraordinary measures to address an extraordinary problem. Section 5 of the Act required States to obtain federal permission before enacting any law related to voting—a drastic departure from basic principles of federalism. And §4 of the Act applied that requirement only to some States—an equally dramatic departure from the principle that all States enjoy equal sovereignty. This was strong medicine, but Congress determined it was needed to address entrenched racial discrimination in voting, “an insidious and pervasive evil which had been perpetuated in certain parts of our country through unremitting and ingenious defiance of the Constitution.” South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1966) . As we explained in upholding the law, “exceptional conditions can justify legislative measures not otherwise appropriate.” Reflecting the unprecedented nature of these measures, they were scheduled to expire after five years.
Nearly 50 years later, they are still in effect; indeed, they have been made more stringent, and are now scheduled to last until 2031. There is no denying, however, that the conditions that originally justified these measures no longer characterize voting in the covered jurisdictions. By 2009, “the racial gap in voter registration and turnout [was] lower in the States originally covered by §5 than it [was] nationwide.” Since that time, Census Bureau data indicate that African-American voter turnout has come to exceed white voter turnout in five of the six States originally covered by §5, with a gap in the sixth State of less than one half of one percent.
At the same time, voting
discrimination still exists; no one doubts that. The
question is whether the Act’s extraordinary measures,
including its disparate treatment of the States,
continue to satisfy constitutional requirements. As we
put it a short time ago, “the Act imposes current
burdens and must be justified by current needs.”
The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870, in the wake of the Civil War. It provides that “[t]he right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude,” and it gives Congress the “power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” Inspired to action by the civil rights movement, Congress responded in 1965 with the Voting Rights Act. Section 2 was enacted to forbid, in all 50 States, any “standard, practice, or procedure . . . imposed or applied . . . to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color.” The current version forbids any “standard, practice, or procedure” that “results in a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color.” Section 2 is permanent, applies nationwide, and is not at issue in this case.
Other sections targeted only some
parts of the country. At the time of the Act’s passage,
these “covered” jurisdictions were those States or
political subdivisions that had maintained a test or
device as a prerequisite to voting as of November 1,
1964, and had less than 50 percent voter registration or
turnout in the 1964 Presidential election. Such tests or
devices included literacy and knowledge tests, good
moral character requirements, the need for vouchers from
registered voters, and the like. A covered jurisdiction
could “bail out” of coverage if it had not used a test
or device in the preceding five years “for the purpose
or with the effect of denying or abridging the right to
vote on account of race or color.” In 1965, the covered
States included Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia. The
additional covered subdivisions included 39 counties in
North Carolina and one in Arizona.
In those jurisdictions, §4 of the Act banned all such tests or devices. Section 5 provided that no change in voting procedures could take effect until it was approved by federal authorities in Washington, D. C.—either the Attorney General or a court of three judges. A jurisdiction could obtain such “preclearance” only by proving that the change had neither “the purpose [nor] the effect of denying or abridging the right to vote on account of race or color.”
Sections 4 and 5 were intended to be
temporary; they were set to expire after five years. In
South Carolina v. Katzenbach, we upheld the 1965 Act
against constitutional challenge, explaining that it was
justified to address “voting discrimination where it
persists on a pervasive scale....”
In 2006, Congress again reauthorized
the Voting Rights Act for 25 years...Section 5 now
forbids voting changes with “any discriminatory purpose”
as well as voting changes that diminish the ability of
citizens, on account of race, color, or language
minority status, “to elect their preferred candidates of
Shortly after this reauthorization, a
Texas utility district brought suit, seeking to bail out
from the Act’s coverage and, in the alternative,
challenging the Act’s constitutionality.....We explained
[in Northwest Austin] that §5 “imposes substantial
federalism costs” and “differentiates between the
States, despite our historic tradition that all the
States enjoy equal sovereignty.” We also noted that
“[t]hings have changed in the South....Ultimately,
however, the Court’s construction of the bailout
provision left the constitutional issues for another
Shelby County is located in Alabama, a covered jurisdiction. It has not sought bailout, as the Attorney General has recently objected to voting changes proposed from within the county. Instead, in 2010, the county sued the Attorney General in Federal District Court in Washington, D. C., seeking a declaratory judgment that sections 4(b) and 5 of the Voting Rights Act are facially unconstitutional, as well as a permanent injunction against their enforcement. The District Court ruled against the county and upheld the Act....
We granted certiorari.
In Northwest Austin, we stated that “the Act imposes current burdens and must be justified by current needs.” And we concluded that “a departure from the fundamental principle of equal sovereignty requires a showing that a statute’s disparate geographic coverage is sufficiently related to the problem that it targets.” These basic principles guide our review of the question before us.
The Constitution and laws of the
United States are “the supreme Law of the Land.” State
legislation may not contravene federal law. The Federal
Government does not, however, have a general right to
review and veto state enactments before they go into
effect. A proposal to grant such authority to “negative”
state laws was considered at the Constitutional
Convention, but rejected in favor of allowing state laws
to take effect, subject to later challenge under the
Outside the strictures of the
Supremacy Clause, States retain broad autonomy in
structuring their governments and pursuing legislative
objectives. Indeed, the Constitution provides that all
powers not specifically granted to the Federal
Government are reserved to the States or citizens. Amdt.
10. This “allocation of powers in our federal system
preserves the integrity, dignity, and residual
sovereignty of the States.” But the federal balance “is
not just an end in itself: Rather, federalism secures to
citizens the liberties that derive from the diffusion of
More specifically, “ ‘the
Framers of the Constitution intended the States to keep
for themselves, as provided in the Tenth
Amendment, the power to regulate
elections.’ ” Of course, the Federal Government
retains significant control over federal elections. For
instance, the Constitution authorizes Congress to
establish the time and manner for electing Senators and
Representatives. But States have “broad powers to
determine the conditions under which the right of
suffrage may be exercised.” And “[e]ach State has the
power to prescribe the qualifications of its officers
and the manner in which they shall be chosen.” Drawing
lines for congressional districts is likewise “primarily
the duty and responsibility of the State.”
Not only do States retain sovereignty
under the Constitution, there is also a “fundamental
principle of equal sovereignty” among the States.
Over a hundred years ago, this Court explained that our
Nation “was and is a union of States, equal in power,
dignity and authority.” Indeed, “the
constitutional equality of the States is essential to
the harmonious operation of the scheme upon which the
Republic was organized.”
The Voting Rights Act sharply departs from these basic principles. It suspends “all changes to state election law—however innocuous—until they have been precleared by federal authorities in Washington, D. C.” States must beseech the Federal Government for permission to implement laws that they would otherwise have the right to enact and execute on their own, subject of course to any injunction in a §2 action. The Attorney General has 60 days to object to a preclearance request, longer if he requests more information. If a State seeks preclearance from a three-judge court, the process can take years.
And despite the tradition of equal
sovereignty, the Act applies to only nine States (and
several additional counties). While one State waits
months or years and expends funds to implement a validly
enacted law, its neighbor can typically put the same law
into effect immediately, through the normal legislative
process. Even if a noncovered jurisdiction is sued,
there are important differences between those
proceedings and preclearance proceedings; the
preclearance proceeding “not only switches the burden of
proof to the supplicant jurisdiction, but also applies
substantive standards quite different from those
governing the rest of the nation.”
All this explains why, when we first upheld the Act in 1966, we described it as “stringent” and “potent.” We recognized that it “may have been an uncommon exercise of congressional power,” but concluded that “legislative measures not otherwise appropriate” could be justified by “exceptional conditions.” We have since noted that the Act “authorizes federal intrusion into sensitive areas of state and local policymaking,” and represents an “extraordinary departure from the traditional course of relations between the States and the Federal Government.”
In 1966, we found these departures
from the basic features of our system of government
justified. The “blight of racial discrimination in
voting” had “infected the electoral process in parts of
our country for nearly a century.” Several States had
enacted a variety of requirements and tests
“specifically designed to prevent” African-Americans
from voting. Case-by-case litigation had proved
inadequate to prevent such racial discrimination in
voting, in part because States “merely switched to
discriminatory devices not covered by the federal
decrees,” “enacted difficult new tests,” or simply
“defied and evaded court orders.” Shortly before
enactment of the Voting Rights Act, only 19.4 percent of
African-Americans of voting age were registered to vote
in Alabama, only 31.8 percent in Louisiana, and only 6.4
percent in Mississippi.Those figures were roughly 50
percentage points or more below the figures for whites.
In short, we concluded that “[u]nder
the compulsion of these unique circumstances, Congress
responded in a permissibly decisive manner.” We also
noted then and have emphasized since that this
extra-ordinary legislation was intended to be temporary,
set to expire after five years.
Nearly 50 years later, things have changed dramatically. Shelby County contends that the preclearance re-quirement, even without regard to its disparate coverage, is now unconstitutional. Its arguments have a good deal of force. In the covered jurisdictions, “[v]oter turnout and registration rates now approach parity. Blatantly discriminatory evasions of federal decrees are rare. And minority candidates hold office at unprecedented levels.” The tests and devices that blocked access to the ballot have been forbidden nationwide for over 40 years. Those conclusions are not ours alone. Congress said the same when it reauthorized the Act in 2006, writing that “[s]ignificant progress has been made in eliminating first generation barriers experienced by minority voters, including increased numbers of registered minority voters, minority voter turnout, and minority representation in Congress, State legislatures, and local elected offices....”
There is no doubt that these improvements are in large part because of the Voting Rights Act. The Act has proved immensely successful at redressing racial discrimination and integrating the voting process. During the “Freedom Summer” of 1964, in Philadelphia, Mississippi, three men were murdered while working in the area to register African-American voters. On “Bloody Sunday” in 1965, in Selma, Alabama, police beat and used tear gas against hundreds marching in support of African-American enfranchisement. Today both of those towns are governed by African-American mayors. Problems remain in these States and others, but there is no denying that, due to the Voting Rights Act, our Nation has made great strides.
Yet the Act has not eased the restrictions in §5 or narrowed the scope of the coverage formula in §4(b) along the way. Those extraordinary and unprecedented features were reauthorized—as if nothing had changed. In fact, the Act’s unusual remedies have grown even stronger. When Congress reauthorized the Act in 2006, it did so for another 25 years on top of the previous 40—a far cry from the initial five-year period....
Respondents do not deny that there have been improvements on the ground, but argue that much of this can be attributed to the deterrent effect of §5, which dissuades covered jurisdictions from engaging in discrimination that they would resume should §5 be struck down. Under this theory, however, §5 would be effectively immune from scrutiny; no matter how “clean” the record of covered jurisdictions, the argument could always be made that it was deterrence that accounted for the good behavior.
The provisions of §5 apply only to those jurisdictions singled out by §4. We now consider whether that coverage formula is constitutional in light of current conditions.
When upholding the constitutionality of the coverage formula in 1966, we concluded that it was “rational in both practice and theory.” The formula looked to cause (discriminatory tests) and effect (low voter registration and turnout), and tailored the remedy (preclearance) to those jurisdictions exhibiting both.
By 2009, however, we concluded that the “coverage formula raise[d] serious constitutional questions.” As we explained, a statute’s “current burdens” must be justified by “current needs,” and any “disparate geographic coverage” must be “sufficiently related to the problem that it targets.” The coverage formula met that test in 1965, but no longer does so.
Coverage today is based on decades-old data and eradicated practices. The formula captures States by reference to literacy tests and low voter registration and turnout in the 1960s and early 1970s. But such tests have been banned nationwide for over 40 years. And voter registration and turnout numbers in the covered States have risen dramatically in the years since. Racial disparity in those numbers was compelling evidence justifying the preclearance remedy and the coverage formula. There is no longer such a disparity.
In 1965, the States could be divided into two groups: those with a recent history of voting tests and low voter registration and turnout, and those without those characteristics. Congress based its coverage formula on that distinction. Today the Nation is no longer divided along those lines, yet the Voting Rights Act continues to treat it as if it were.
The Government’s defense of the formula is limited. First, the Government contends that the formula is “reverse-engineered”: Congress identified the jurisdictions to be covered and then came up with criteria to describe them. Under that reasoning, there need not be any logical relationship be-tween the criteria in the formula and the reason for coverage; all that is necessary is that the formula happen to capture the jurisdictions Congress wanted to single out.
The Government suggests that
Katzenbach sanctioned such an approach, but the analysis
in Katzenbach was quite different. Katzenbach reasoned
that the coverage formula was rational because the
“formula . . . was relevant to the problem”:
“Tests and devices are relevant to voting discrimination
because of their long history as a tool for perpetrating
the evil; a low voting rate is pertinent for the obvious
reason that widespread disenfranchisement must
inevitably affect the number of actual voters.”
Here, by contrast, the Government’s reverse- engineering argument does not even attempt to demonstrate the continued relevance of the formula to the problem it targets. And in the context of a decision as significant as this one—subjecting a disfavored subset of States to “extraordinary legislation otherwise unfamiliar to our federal system”—that failure to establish even relevance is fatal.
The Government falls back to the argument that because the formula was relevant in 1965, its continued use is permissible so long as any discrimination remains in the States Congress identified back then—regardless of how that discrimination compares to discrimination in States unburdened by coverage. This argument does not look to “current political conditions,” but instead relies on a comparison between the States in 1965. That comparison reflected the different histories of the North and South. It was in the South that slavery was upheld by law until uprooted by the Civil War, that the reign of Jim Crow denied African-Americans the most basic freedoms, and that state and local governments worked tirelessly to disenfranchise citizens on the basis of race. The Court invoked that history—rightly so—in sustaining the disparate coverage of the Voting Rights Act in 1966.
But history did not end in 1965. By the time the Act was reauthorized in 2006, there had been 40 more years of it. In assessing the current need for a preclearance system that treats States differently from one another today, that history cannot be ignored. During that time, largely because of the Voting Rights Act, voting tests were abolished, disparities in voter registration and turnout due to race were erased, and African-Americans attained political office in record numbers. And yet the coverage formula that Congress reauthorized in 2006 ignores these developments, keeping the focus on decades-old data relevant to decades-old problems, rather than current data reflecting current needs.
The Fifteenth Amendment commands that the right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race or color, and it gives Congress the power to enforce that command. The Amendment is not designed to punish for the past; its purpose is to ensure a better future. To serve that purpose, Congress—if it is to divide the States—must identify those jurisdictions to be singled out on a basis that makes sense in light of current conditions. It cannot rely simply on the past. We made that clear in Northwest Austin, and we make it clear again today....
The dissent turns to the record to argue that, in light of voting discrimination in Shelby County, the county cannot complain about the provisions that subject it to preclearance. But that is like saying that a driver pulled over pursuant to a policy of stopping all redheads cannot complain about that policy, if it turns out his license has expired. Shelby County’s claim is that the coverage formula here is unconstitutional in all its applications, because of how it selects the jurisdictions subjected to preclearance. The county was selected based on that formula, and may challenge it in court....
There is no valid reason to insulate the coverage formula from review merely because it was previously enacted 40 years ago. If Congress had started from scratch in 2006, it plainly could not have enacted the present coverage formula. It would have been irrational for Congress to distinguish between States in such a fundamental way based on 40-year-old data, when today’s statistics tell an entirely different story. And it would have been irrational to base coverage on the use of voting tests 40 years ago, when such tests have been illegal since that time. But that is exactly what Congress has done.
Striking down an Act of Congress “is the gravest and most delicate duty that this Court is called on to perform.” We do not do so lightly. That is why, in 2009, we took care to avoid ruling on the constitutionality of the Voting Rights Act when asked to do so, and instead resolved the case then before us on statutory grounds. But in issuing that decision, we expressed our broader concerns about the constitutionality of the Act. Congress could have updated the coverage formula at that time, but did not do so. Its failure to act leaves us today with no choice but to declare §4(b) unconstitutional. The formula in that section can no longer be used as a basis for subjecting jurisdictions to preclearance.
Our decision in no way affects the permanent, nationwide ban on racial discrimination in voting found in §2. We issue no holding on §5 itself, only on the coverage formula. Congress may draft another formula based on current conditions. Such a formula is an initial prerequisite to a determination that exceptional conditions still exist justifying such an “extraordinary departure from the traditional course of relations between the States and the Federal Government.” Our country has changed, and while any racial discrimination in voting is too much, Congress must ensure that the legislation it passes to remedy that problem speaks to current conditions.
Justice Thomas, concurring.
I join the Court’s opinion in full
but write separately to explain that I would find
§5 of the Voting Rights Act unconstitutional as
Justice Ginsburg, with whom Justice Breyer, Justice Sotomayor, and Justice Kagan join, dissenting.
In the Court’s view, the very success of §5 of the Voting Rights Act demands its dormancy. Congress was of another mind. Recognizing that large progress has been made, Congress determined, based on a voluminous record, that the scourge of discrimination was not yet extirpated. The question this case presents is who decides whether, as currently operative, §5 remains justifiable, this Court, or a Congress charged with the obligation to enforce the post-Civil War Amendments “by appropriate legislation.” With overwhelming support in both Houses, Congress concluded that, for two prime reasons, §5 should continue in force, unabated. First, continuance would facilitate completion of the impressive gains thus far made; and second, continuance would guard against backsliding. Those assessments were well within Congress’ province to make and should elicit this Court’s unstinting approbation....
Beyond question, the VRA is no ordinary legislation. It is extraordinary because Congress embarked on a mission long delayed and of extraordinary importance: to realize the purpose and promise of the Fifteenth Amendment. For a half century, a concerted effort has been made to end racial discrimination in voting. Thanks to the Voting Rights Act, progress once the subject of a dream has been achieved and continues to be made.
The record supporting the 2006 reauthorization of the VRA is also extraordinary. It was described by the Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee as “one of the most extensive considerations of any piece of legislation that the United States Congress has dealt with in the 27½ years” he had served in the House. After exhaustive evidence-gathering and deliberative process, Congress reauthorized the VRA, including the coverage provision, with overwhelming bipartisan support. It was the judgment of Congress that “40 years has not been a sufficient amount of time to eliminate the vestiges of discrimination following nearly 100 years of disregard for the dictates of the 15th amendment and to ensure that the right of all citizens to vote is protected as guaranteed by the Constitution.” That determination of the body empowered to enforce the Civil War Amendments “by appropriate legislation” merits this Court’s utmost respect. In my judgment, the Court errs egregiously by overriding Congress’ decision.