Chicago "Black Sox" Scandal: Links & Bibliography
Special thanks to Gene Carney for his help in compiling the sources listed on this page.
Gene Carney, who died in 2009, was a leading scholar of the Black Sox scandal. 
His notes on the controversy (look at past issues via the Archive link, beginning with #268) can be found at the Baseball Archive: Notes from the Shadows of Cooperstown:


Pictures and Court Documents Related to the 1921 Black Sox Trial

From the Chicago History Museum (numerous images and files relating to the scandal)

Chicago Baseball Museum

Chicago Lawyer: "It Ain't So, Kid, It Just Ain't So"

Where Are They Now?

From Montgomery College (Harvard on the Pike)

Shoeless Joe Jackson

Clear Buck Weaver

General Baseball History Eddie Cicotte's 1919 contract sold for $6,750 in August 2002; a year earlier, Jackson's "Black Betsy" bat fetched $577,610. "Cicotte's 29 Wins in 1919" by David Marasco. Devoted to Buck Weaver, "The Ginger Kid." Baseball biographies, including Tom Swope's. Also, see Harvey Frommer's "Shoeless Joe Remains a Scapegoat."  A treasure trove of facts and opinions. The site also has numerous links, including The Shoeless Joe Jackson Times. This site is one place you can look up Joe's testimony. Joe Jackson is in The Shrine of the Eternals. for link to Baseball: The Biographical Encyclopedia, by David Pietrusza, Matt Silverman, Michael Gershman (Total/Sports Illustrated.) Sean Lahman's The Baseball Archive is the home of "Notes from the Shadows of Cooperstown." This is a site of Montgomery College, Maryland. Be sure to have your audio on. For 1922 ruling on baseball's antitrust exemption. Thousands of photos from the archives of the Chicago Daily News. Information on the ESPN Classic documentary, and an article by Eliot Asinof. See Trey Strecker's review of Daniel A. Nathan's Saying It's So. An Arnold Rothstein chronology, including his role in the Big Fix. "Hugh Fullerton and the Press' Revealing Coverage of the Black Sox Scandal, 1919-1921," by Shaun Payne.



Alexander, Charles C. Our Game: An American Baseball History (Henry Holt and Co., 1991.)

Algren, Nelson. The Last Carousel (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.)

Allen, Lee. 100 Years of Baseball (Bartholomew House, Inc., 1950.)

-------. The Cincinnati Reds (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1948.)

Asinof, Eliot. 1919: America's Loss of Innocence (Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1990.)

-------. Bleeding Between the Lines (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.)

Asinof, Eliot. Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series (Holt, 1963).

Auker, Elden, with Keegan, Tom. Sleeper Cars and Flannel Uniforms (Triumph, 2001.)

Aylesworth, Thomas, and Minks, Benton. The Encyclopedia of Baseball Managers (Crescent, 1990.)

Axelson, Gustav W. "Commy": The Life Story of Charles A. Comiskey (Chicago: Reilly & Lee Company, 1919.)

Bak, Richard. Cobb Would Have Caught It (Great Lakes Books, 1961, and Wayne State University Press, 1991.)

Barra, Allen. Clearing the Bases (St Martin's Press, 2002.)

The Baseball Encyclopedia, Eighth Edition. (Macmillan, 1990.)

Baseball's Greatest Quotations (Harper Collins, 1991.)

Bisher, Furman. The Furman Bisher Collection (Taylor, 1989.)

Bloch, Arthur. Murphy's Law (Price/Stern/Sloan, 1977.)

Boyd, Brendan Blue Ruin (W. W. Norton, 1991.)

Breslin, Jimmy. Damon Runyon (Ticknor and Fields, 1991.)

Brown, Warren. The Chicago White Sox (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1952.)

Burk, Robert F. Never Just a Game: Players, Owners and American Baseball to 1920 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994.)

Carney, Gene.  Burying the Black Sox: How Baseball's Cover-Up of the 1919 World Series Fix Almost Succeeded.  (Potomac Books, 2006)

Clarke, Donald Henderson. In the Reign of Rothstein (Vanguard Press, 1929.)

Cohen, Rich. Tough Jews (Simon and Schuster, 1998.)

Cohen and Neft, The World Series (Dial Press, 1979.)

Cook, William A. The 1919 World Series: What Really Happened (McFarland, 2001.)

Condon, Dave. The Go Go White Sox (American Sports Publishing Co., 1960.)

Cottrell, Robert C. Blackball, the Black Sox and the Babe (McFarland, 2002.)

Dawidoff, Nicholas, ed. Baseball: A Literary Anthology (The Library of America, 2002.)

Dickson, Paul, ed. The Dickson Baseball Dictionary (Avon, 1989.)

Dobbins, Dick and Twichell, Jon. Nuggets on the Diamond (SF: Woodford Press, 1994.)

Evans, Christopher H. and Herzog, William R. II., eds. The Faith of Fifty Million (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002.)

Farrell, James T. My Baseball Diary (A.S. Barnes & Co., 1957.)

Fitzgeral, Ed (editor). The American League (Grosset and Dunlap, 1963.) Includes White Sox team history by John Carmichael.

Fleitz, David L. Shoeless: The Life and Times of Joe Jackson (McFarland, 2001.)

Fowler, Gene. The Great Mouthpiece (Covici, 1931.)

Frommer, Harvey. Shoeless Joe and Ragtime Baseball (Taylor Publishing Co., 1992.)

Gardner, Paul. Nice Guys Finish Last: Sport and American Life (Universe Books, 1974.)

Gaughran, Richard. Cooperstown Symposium on Baseball and the American Culture (1990), ed. by Alvin Hall "Saying it Ain't So: The Black Sox Scandal in Baseball Fiction." (Meckler, 1991.)

Ginsburg, Daniel E. The Fix Is In (McFarland, 1995.)

The Gospel According to ESPN: Saints, Saviors and Sinners (Hyperion, 2002.)

Greenberg, Eric Rolfe. The Celebrant (Everest House, 1983.)

Gropman, Donald. Say It Ain't So, Joe!, Revised second edition (Carol Publishing Group, 1992); (also Lynx Books, 1979, 1988.)

Gutman, Dan. Baseball Babylon (Penguin, 1992.)

Holtzman, Jerome. Baseball, Chicago Style (Bonus Books, 2001.)

-------. The Commissioners (Total Sports, 1998.)

-------. The Jerome Holtzman Baseball Reader (Triumph, 2003.)

James, Bill. The Baseball Book 1990 (Villard, 1990.)

-------. The Baseball Book 1991 (Villard, 1991.)

-------. The New Bill James Historical Abstract (Free Press, 2001.)

Kahn, Roger. A Flame of Pure Fire (Harcourt, Brace, 1999.)

Katcher, Leo. The Big Bankroll (Harper and Bros., 1958.)

Kavanagh, Jack. Shoeless Joe Jackson (Chelsea House, 1995.)

Kinsella, W.P. Shoeless Joe (Ballantine, 1983.)

Klingaman, William. 1919: The Year Our World Began (St Martin's Press, 1987.)

Kohout, Martin Donell. Hal Chase: The Defiant Life and Times of Baseball's Biggest Crook (McFarland, 2001.)

Koppett, Leonard. Koppett's Concise History of Major League Baseball (Temple University Press, 1998.)

Krueger, Joseph J. Baseball's Greatest Drama (Classic Publishing, Milwaukee, 1942.)

Lardner, Ring, Jr. The Lardners Remembered (Harper and Row, 1976.)

Leventhal, Josh. Take Me Out to the Ballpark (Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2000.)

Lieb, Fred. The Story of the World Series (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1949.)

Lindberg, Richard C. Stealing First in a Two-Team Town (Sagamore, 1994.)

Luhrs, Victor T. The Great Baseball Mystery (A.S. Barnes & Co., 1966.)

Martinez, David H. The Book of Baseball Literacy (Plume, 1996.)

Miller, Marvin. A Whole Different Ball Game (Birch Land Press, 1991.)

Murdock, Eugene C. Ban Johnson, Czar of Baseball (Greenwood Press, 1982.)

-------. Baseball Between the Wars: Memories of the Game by the Men Who Played It (Meckler, 1992.)

-------. Baseball Players and Their Times, Oral Histories of the Game, 1920-1940 (Meckler, 1991.)

Nardinelli, Clark. Baseball History, "Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis and the Art of Cartel Management," (Meckler Books, 1989.)

Nathan, Daniel A. Saying It's So: A Cultural History of the Black Sox Scandal (University of Illinois Press, 2003.)

Orodenker, Richard, ed. 20th Century American Sportswriters, Volume 171 in The Dictionary of Literary Biography (Gale Research, 1996.) See Paul J. Sandin on Damon Runyon, and Peter Cava on Ring Lardner.

Pietrusza, David. Judge and Jury (Diamond Communications, 1998.)

Ritter, Lawrence S. The Glory of Their Times (William Morrow, 1966.)

-----. Transcript, interview with Edd Roush, January 29, 1964. National Baseball Library, Cooperstown, New York.

Robinson, Ray. Matty: An American Hero (Oxford U. Press, 1993.)

Rothstein, Carolyn (Mrs Arnold). Now I'll Tell (The Vanguard Press, 1934.)

Seidel, Michael. Ted Williams, A Baseball Life (Contemporary Books, 1991.)

Seymour, Harold. Baseball: The Golden Age (Oxford U. Press, 1971.) Also, the Harold and Dorothy Seymour papers, #4809. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University.

Shannon, Mike, ed. The Best of Spitball (Simon & Schuster, 1988.)

Shatzkin, Mike, ed. The Ballplayers (William Morrow, 1990.)

Silverman, Jeff, ed. Lardner on Baseball (The Lyons Press, 2002.)

Skipper, James K. Baseball Nicknames (McFarland, 1992.)

Smith, Leverett T. The American Dream and the National Game (Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1970.)

Smith, Robert. Baseball in the Afternoon (Simon & Schuster, 1933.)

Spink, J. G. Taylor. Judge Landis and 25 Years of Baseball (Thomas Y. Crowell Co, NY, 1947.)

Stein, Harry. Hoopla (Dell, 1983.)

Stein, Irving M. The Ginger Kid (Elysian Fields Press, 1992.)

Story, Ron. Course book prepared for History 185A, Spring 1977, University of Massachusetts.

Sugar, Burt Randolph Rain Delays (St Martin's Press, 1990.)

Sullivan, Dean, ed. Middle Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1900-1948 (University of Nebraska Press, 1998.)

Terracem, Vincent. The Complete Encyclopedia of Television Programs, 1947-1976 (A.S. Barnes and Co., 1976.)

Total Baseball, Third Edition (Harper Collins, 1993.)

Trial Transcripts and Related Documents, Joe Jackson vs. Chicago White Sox; Milwaukee, WI, January/February 1924. Courtesy of Thomas G. Cannon, Attorney at Law.

Tygiel, Jules. Past Time: Baseball as History (Oxford University Press, 2000.)

Veeck, Bill, with Linn, Ed. The Hustler's Handbook (Baseball America Classsic Books, 1996.)

Voigt, David Q. American Baseball, Volume 2 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.)

-------. America Through Baseball (Nelson Hall, 1976.)

Waller, George. Saratoga: Saga of an Impious Era (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.)

Wallop, Douglass. Baseball: An Informal History (W.W. Norton & Co., Inc, 1969.)

Ward, Geoffrey C. and Burns, Ken. Baseball, An Illustrated History (Knopf, 1994.)

Werber, Bill and Rogers, C. Paul III. Memories of a Ballplayer (Society for American Baseball Research, 2001.)

Williams, Peter, ed. The Joe Williams Baseball Reader (Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1989.)

Will, George F. Bunts: Curt Flood, Camden Yards, Pete Rose and Other Reflections on Baseball (Scribner, 1998.)

Yardley, Jonathan. Ring: A Biography of Ring Lardner (Athenum, 1984.)


"Amnesty for Black Sox Third Baseman?" Wall Street Journal, January 17, 1992.

Anderson, William B. "Saving the National Pastime's Image: Crisis Management During the 1919 Black Sox Scandal," Journalism History, Fall 2001. (The year after Landis' ban, MLB developed a "press office to respond to media requests.")

Barton, George. "Weaver's Role in Fixed Series," in Baseball Digest, April 1956.

Bevill, Lynn. "Outlaw Baseball," The Cochise Quarterly, Summer 1991. (This is a publication of the Cochise County Historical and Archeological Society, PO Box 1818, Douglas, AZ 85608-0818.)

Bevis, Charlie. "The Evolution of World Series Scheduling," The Baseball Research Journal, No. 31, SABR, Spring 2003.

Bisher, Furman. "This is the Truth," Sport, October 1949.

Brenner, Marie. "The Enron Wars," Vanity Fair, April 2002.

Brown, J.L. "The Big Baseball Scandal," The American Mercury, May 1939; Vol. 47, No. 185.

Burns, Ed. Untitled, The Sporting News, November 28, 1940.

Carmichael, John. "Chicago White Sox," #10 in a Team History series; this also appeared in Sport, June 1951.

Carino, Peter. "Novels of the Black Sox Scandal: History/Fiction/Myth," Nine: A Journal of Baseball History and Social Policy Perspectives, Spring 1995.

Chapin, Dwight. "Gandil: 'I'll Go to My Grave With a Clear Conscience,'" September 2, 1969. Source unknown, clipping is in Gandil's player file in the National Baseball Library, Cooperstown, NY.

Chicago Times, "Mystery Man in Sox Case Tells Hunt for Burns," July 24, 1921.

-----. "Record Betting Cause of Alarm, Starts Scandal," October 5, 1919.

Falls, Joe. "Cicotte, 46 Years Later," Detroit Free Press, 1965. (Reprinted in Baseball Digest, February 1966.

Feldman, Chic. Interview with Eddie Murphy in The Scrantonian (Scranton, PA), September 13, 1959.

Flagler, J.M. "Requiem for a Southpaw," The New Yorker, December 5, 1959.

"The Flaw in the Diamond," Literary Digest, October 9, 1920.

Frommer, Harvey. Shoeless Joe and Ragtime Baseball ( Taylor, 1992).

Gandil, Chick (as told to Melvin Durslag). This is My Story of the Black Sox Series (Sports Illustrated, 1956).

Goler, Robert I. "Black Sox." (Chicago History, Fall/Winter 1988-89).

Fullerton, Hugh S., Sr, "Is Big League Baseball Being Run for Gamblers, with Players in the Deal?" New York Evening World, December 19,1919.

Fullerton, Hugh S., Sr, "Baseball on Trial," The New Republic, October 1920.

Gandil, Arnold "Chick," as told to Mel Durslag. "This is My Story of the Black Sox Series," Sports Illustrated, September 17, 1956.

Gillespie, Ray. "St. Louis Policeman Recalls Details of Black Sox Case," The Sporting News, October 9, 1957.

Green, Paul. Interview with Happy Chandler, Sports Collectors Digest, circa 1983-84.

Hynd, Alan. True Detective, November or December, 1938. A very lengthy account of the fix. The copy in the Cooperstown library is readable, but the month on the cover is illegible.

Isaminger, James. "Gamblers Promised White Sox $100,000 to Lose," in the Philadelphia North American, September 27, 1920. (Reprinted in Baseball Digest, October-November, 1959.)

Kirby, James. "The Year They Fixed the World Series," American Bar Association Journal, February 1, 1988.

Kuenster, John. "Warm Up Tosses," Baseball Digest, September 1970. (Interview with Ray Schalk.)

Lardner, John. "Remember the Black Sox?" The Saturday Evening Post, April 30, 1938.

Latimer, Carter (Scoop). Interview with Joe Jackson. The Sporting News, September 24, 1942.

Lerach, William S. "Plundering America: How Wall Street, the Big Accounting Firms, and Corporate Interests Chloroformed Congress and Cost America's Investors Trillions," speech of May 22, 2003.

Lieb, Fred. "Fullerton, Famed Forecaster, Named Spink Award Winner," The Sporting News, November 7, 1964.

Lord, Timothy C. "Hegel, Marx and Shoeless Joe: Religious Ideology in Kinsella's Baseball Fantasy," Aethlon, Fall 1992.

Menke, Frank G. "Elevated Upon the Shoulders of Wrong and Rebellion." The Sporting News, January 31, 1924

-----. "What Became of $10,000 Reward Comiskey Offered for Discovery of World Series Crookedness?" The Sporting News, April 10, 1924.

-----. "Menke Writes Another Chapter in White Sox Scandal Investigation." The Sporting News, April 17, 1924.

-----. "Menke Details Startling Revelations at Jackson's Suit Against White Sox," The Sporting News, April 24, 1924.

Milwaukee Journal coverage of trial, Joe Jackson vs Chicago White Sox, January and February, 1924.

-----. "Judge Gregory Mourned; Funeral to be Saturday," November 30, 1939.

Mullin, John. "Comiskey Rewarded Pals with Sox-Giants World Tours," The Chicago Tribune, March 30, 1998.

The Nation, editorial, "The Baseball Scandal," October 13, 1920.

Rosenthal, Harold. "The Scandalous Black Sox," Sport, October 1959.

Salsinger, H.G. "Ed Cicotte Crossed His Detroit Friends," The Sporting News, October 7, 1920.

Sheed, Wilfrid. "One Man Out ... Too Long," GQ, August 1990.

Sheridan, John B. "Back of the Home Plate," The Sporting News, October 7, 1920.

Simons, Herbert. "How the 1919 Series Was Thrown," Baseball Digest, October/November 1959.

The Sporting News, March 13, 1919, "Where Jackson Goes Williams Follows." No author credited.

------. October 7, 1920, "When Baseball Gets Before the Grand Jury." No author credited.

-----. February 10, 1921. Untitled, uncredited report on Philadelphia interview with Eddie Collins and reactions.

-----. February 21, 1924. Untitled editorial.

Thompson, Lewis and Charles Boswell. "Say It Ain't So, Joe!" in American Heritage, June 1960.

Vintage & Classic Baseball Collector, March 1995. Reprint of the play-by-play of the 1919 World Series from The Spalding Guide.

Voigt, David Quentin. "The Chicago Black Sox and the Myth of Baseball's Single Sin" (Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Spring 1969).

Weir, Hugh C. "The Real Comiskey," Baseball Magazine, February 1914.

Williams, Joe. "Dickie Kerr Discusses the Black Sox." Column is undated, source unknown; from player file of Eddie Cicotte in National Baseball Library, Cooperstown, NY.

------. Column title unknown. World Telegram, September 24, 1959.

Williams, Ted. "It's Time to Open the Door," The National Pastime #18, Society for American Baseball Research, 1998.


Christian, Ralph J. "Beyond Eight Men Out: The Des Moines Connection to the Black Sox Scandal," presented at the 2003 National Convention of the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR), Denver, Colorado, July 2003.


Burns, Ken.  Baseball, Inning 3, "The Faith of Fifty Million People," ("Say It Ain't So, Joe") (BMG Video, 1994).

The Black Sox Scandal, documentary, ESPN Classic, 2001.

The Chicago White Sox: A Visual History, produced by Major League Baseball via Phoenix Community Group, 1987.

Sayles, John (Director). "Eight Men Out" (Orion, 1988).

The Trial of Buck Weaver and Joe Jackson, Chicago Lincoln and Chicago American Inns of Court, 1992.

Witness, "The Trial of Joe Jackson," episode aired January 28, 1961, CBS-TV.

"World Series Fixed!" The Black Sox Scandal, documentary, The History Channel, 1997. 

Chicago Black Sox Trial Homepage