The most comprehensive and most recent treatment of the Leopold and Loeb case can be found in Simon Baatz's new book, For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb, and the Murder that Shocked Chicago (2008).



The Leopold & Loeb Trial, Clarence Darrow Digital Collection of the Univ. of Minnesota Law Library


Alexander, George B. You --the Story of Your Ductless Glands; What Causes the Giant-Dwarf- Bearded Lady, Lion-Faced Boy, Youthful Mental Marvels, Perverts and Murderers of the Hickman, Leopold, Loeb Type, What Makes the Black-Man Black, What Causes the Terrible Cretin; How You May Prolong Life and Preserve Youthful Essentials. Boston, 1929.

Baatz, Simon.  For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb, and the Murder that Shocked Chicago.  New York: HarperCollins, 2008.

Berger, Gilda and Melvin Berger. Bizarre Murders. New York : J. Messner, 1983.

Busch, Francis X. Prisoners at the Bar; an Account of the Trials of the William Haywood case, the Sacco-Vanzetti case, the Loeb-Leopold case, the Bruno Hauptmann case. Notable American Trials Series. Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill, 1952.

Darrow, Clarence (forward by Irving Younger). Clarence Darrow's Sentenceing Speech in State of Illinois v. Leopold and Loeb. Classics of the Courtroom Series. Minnetonka, MN : Professional Education Group, 1988.

Darrow, Clarence, and Robert E. Crowe. Attorney Clarence Darrow's Plea for Mercy and Prosecutor Robert E. Crowe's Demand for the Death Penalty in the Loeb Leopold Case ; the Crime of a Century. Chicago : Wilson Publishing Co., 1923

David, Andrew. Famous Criminal Trials. Minneapolis : Lerner Publishing Co., 1979.

DeFord, Miriam Allen. Murderers Sane & Mad; Case Histories in the Motivation and Rationale of Murder. New York : Abelard-Schuman, 1965.

Driemen, John E. Clarence Darrow. New York : Chelsea House, 1992.

Gertz, Elmer. A Handful of Clients. Chicago : Follett Publishing, 1965.

Halper, Albert. The Chicago Crime Book. Cleveland : World Publishing Co., 1967.

Hicks, Frederick C. ed. Famous American Jury Speeches . St. Paul : West Publishing, 1925.

Higdon, Hal. The Crime of the Century ; the Leopold and Loeb Case. New York : Putnam, 1975.

Jensen, Richard J. Clarence Darrow : The Creation of an American Myth, New York : Greenwood Press, 1992.

Leopold, Nathan F. Checklist of Birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. R'io Piedras : University of Puerto Rico, 1963.

Leopold, Nathan F. Life Plus 99 Years. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday,1958.

Levin, Meyer. Compulsion. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956.

MacKenzie, Frederick. Twentieth Century Crimes, Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 1927.

McKernan, Maureen (introduction by Clarence Darrow and Walter Bachrach). The Amazing Crime and Trial of Leopold and Loeb. Notable Trials Library. Chicago : The Plymouth Court Press, 1924; reprint Birmingham, AL : Notable Trials Library, 1989.

McLynn, Frank. Famous Trials; Cases That Made History. Pleasantville, N.Y. : Reader's Digest, 1995.

Mortimer, John ed. The Oxford Book of Villains. New York : Oxford University Press, 1992.

Torrey, E. Fuller. Freudian Fraud : the Malignant Effect of Freud's Theory on American Thought and Culture, New York : Harper Collins, 1992.

Urstein, Maurycy. Leopold and Loeb, a Psychiatric - Psychological Study. New York : Lecouver Press, 1924.



Bauman, Mark K. "John T. Scopes, Leopold and Loeb, and Bishop Warren A. Chandler". 16 Methodist Hist. 92 (1978).

Darrow, Clarence S. "What to do About Crime". 6 Neb. B. Bull. 117 (1926).

Fass, Paula S. "Making and Remaking an Event : The Leopold and Loeb Case in American Culture". 80 J. Amer. Hist. 919 (1993).

Gosline, H.I. "The Loeb - Leopold Case Again". 15 J. Crim. L. 501 (1924 - 1925).

Howe, Scott W. "Reassessing the Individualization Mandate in Capital Sentencing : Darrow's Defense of Leopold and Loeb". 79 Iowa L.Rev. 989 (July, 1994).

"Judge Caverly's Decision" 29 Dick. L. Rev. 1 (1924).

"The Loeb - Leopold Murder of Franks in Chicago, May 21, 1924" (in 6 parts). 15 J. of Crim. L. 347 (1924 - 1925). ("Chronology" - 348; "The Crime and Its Detection" - 349; "Psychiatrists' Report for the Defense" - 360; "Psychiatrists Called by the Prosecution" - 380; "Sentence of the Judge" - 391; "Symposium of Comments from the Legal Profession" - 394)

Kaufer, David. "Analyzing Philosophy in Rhetoric : Darrow's Mechanism in the Defense of Leopold and Loeb". 45 S. Speech Comm. J. 363, (1980).

Villafranca, Justo. "El Crimen de los ‘Superhombres' " ("Crime of the ‘Supermen' "). 16 Hist. y Vida 113 (1983).

Wigmore, John H. "The Judge's Sentence in the Loeb - Leopold Murder". 19 Ill. L.Rev. 167 (1924).

Wigmore, John H. "To Abolish Partisanship of Expert Witnesses, as Illustrated in the Loeb - Leopold Case". 15 J. Crim. L. 341 (1924 - 1925)


Ariens, Michael. "Evidence of Religion and the Religion of Evidence". 40 Buff. L. Rev. 65 (Winter, 1992).

Arnett, Lisa Kline. "Death at an Early Age : International Law Arguments Against the Death Penalty for Juveniles". 57 U. Cin. L. Rev. 245 (1988).

Asimow, Michael. "When Lawyers Were Heroes". 30 U.S.F. L. Rev. 1131 (Summer, 1996).

Austin, Arthur. "The Jury System at Risk from Complexity, the New Media, and Deviancy". 73 Denv. U. L. Rev. 51 (1995).

Boldt, Richard C. "The Construction of Responsibility in the Criminal Law". 140 U. Pa.L. Rev. 2245 (June, 1992).

Boudin, Michael. "The Best Defense by Alan M. Dershowitz". 35 Stan.L.Rev. 621 (1983).

Carlson, William E. "Defamation by Fiction". 42 Md. L.Rev. 387 (1983).

Chase, Anthony. "Historical Reconstruction in Popular Legal and Political Culture". 24 Seton Hall L. Rev. 1969 (1994).

Dannay, Richard. "Annotated Case List : Book Publishing Contracts and Related Matters". Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Literary Property Course Handbook Series. 250 PLI /Pat 15 (1988).

Eastman, Herbert A. "Speaking Truth to Power : The Language of Civil Rights Litigators". 104 Yale L.J. 763 (January, 1995).

Fullerton, Mary Ellen. "Judgment in Berlin by Herbert J. Stern". 59 Temp. L.Q. 1345 (1986).

Gade, Major W. Renn. "Crime and Punishment in American History". 146 Mil. L. Rev.297 (Fall, 1994).

Garet, Ronald R. "Self-Transformability". 65 S. Cal. L. Rev. 121 (Nov., 1991).

Garner, Lisa Karen. "Billionaire Boys' Club : Billionaires by Crime ? " 10 Loy. Ent. L.J. 573 (1990).

Garvey, Stephen P. " ‘As the Gentle Rain from Heaven' : Mercy in Capital Sentencing". 81 Cornell L. Rev. 989 (July, 1996).

Ghent, Jeffrey F. "Waiver or Loss of Right of Privacy". 57 A.L.R. 3d 16 (1975).

Gillies, Paul S. "Darrow in Vermont". 21 Vt. B.J. & L. Dig. 9 (October, 1995).

Green, Thomas A. "Freedom and Criminal Responsibility in the Age of Pound : An Essay on Criminal Justice". 93 Mich. L. Rev. 1915 (June, 1995).

Greenberg, Dan and Thomas H. Tobiason. "The New Legal Puritanism of Catharine Mackinnon". 54 Ohio St. L. J. 1375 (1993).

Greenfield, Steve and Guy Osburn. "Pulped Fiction ? Cinematic Parables of (In)Justice". 30 U.S.F. L. Rev. 1181 (Summer, 1996).

Grunfeld, Jacqui Gold. "Docudramas : The Legality of Producing Fact-Based Dramas -- What Every Producer's Attorney Should Know". 14 Hastings Comm/Ent L.J. 483 (July 1992).

Heald, Paul J. "Medea and the Un-Man : Literary Guidance in the Determination of Heinousness Under Maynard v. Cartwright". 73 Tex. L. Rev. 571 (February, 1995).

Helle, Steven. "Publicity Does Not Equal Prejudice". 85 Ill. B. J. 16 (January, 1997).

Howard, Roscoe C., Jr. "The Defunding of the Post-Conviction Defense Organizations as a Denial of the Right to Counsel". 98 W.Va. L. Rev. 863 (Spring, 1996).

Howe, Scott W. "Juror Neutrality or an Impartiality Array ? A Structural Theory of the Impartial Jury Mandate". 70 Notre Dame L.Rev. 1173 (1995).

Howe, Scott W. "Untangling Competing Conceptions of ‘Evidence' " 30 Loy.L.A. L. Rev. 1199 (April, 1997).

Kirby, James. "The Year They Fixed the World Series". 74 Feb. A.B.A. J. 64 (February,1988).

Kornstein, Daniel J. "The Case Against Lillian Hellman : A Literary/Legal Defense". 57 Fordham L. Rev. 683 (April, 1989).

McCarty, Dwight G. "Mental Defectives and the Criminal Law". 14 Iowa L.Rev. 401 (1929).

McDiarmid, Marjorie Anne. "Lawyer Decision Making : The Problem of Prediction ". 1992 Wisc. L. Rev. 1847 (1992).

McElhaney, James W. "The Trial of Henry Sweet : Clarence Darrow Confronts the Issues of the Day". 78 - July A.B.A. J. 73 (1992).

Meagher, John F. W. "Crime and Insanity : A Discussion of Some Modern Radical Theories". 11 Va. L. Reg. 577 (1926).

Mello, Michael. "On Metaphors, Mirrors, and Murders : Theodore Bundy and the Rule of Law". 18 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 887 (1990/1991).

Meltzer, Donald. "toward a New Standard of Liability for Defamation for Defamation in Fiction". 58 N.Y.U.L.Rev. 1115 (1983).

Moore, Michael S. "Causation and the Excuses". 73 Cal. L. Rev. 1091 (1985).

Moshayedi, Megan. "Defamation by Docudrama: Protecting Reputations from Derogatory Speculation". 1993 U. Chi. Legal F. 331 (1993).

Perry, Michael J. "Is the Idea of Human Rights Ineliminably Religious ? " 27 U. Rich. L.Rev. 1023 (1993).

Perry, Michael J. "The Gospel According to Dworkin". 11 Const. Comment. 163 (Winter, 1994).

Raeker-Jordan, Susan. "A Pro-Death, Self-Fulfilling Constitutional Construct : The Supreme Court's Evolving Standard of Decency for the Death Penalty". 23 Hastings Const. L.Q. 455 (Winter, 1996).

Reidinger, Paul. "Death Penalty - A Court Divided". 73 Jan. A.B.A.J. 46 (January, 1987).

Roman, Ediberto. " ‘Your Honor What I Meant to State Was...': A Comparative Analysis of the Judicial and Evidentiary Admission Doctrines as Applied to Counsel Statements in Pleadings, Open Court, and Memoranda of Law". 22 Pepp. L.Rev. 981 (1995).

Sarat, Austin. "Violence, Representation and Responsibility in Capital Trials : The View From the Jury". 70 Ind. L.J. 1103 (Fall, 1995).

Shepherd, John C. and Jordan B. Cherrick. "Advocacy and Emotion". 138 F.R.D. 619 (1991).

Smith, Abbe. "Criminal Responsibility, Social Responsibility, and Angry Young Men : Reflections of a Feminist Criminal Defense Lawyer". 21 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 433 (1994 - 1995).

Smith, Abbe. "They Dream of Growing Older : On Kids and Crime". 36 B.C. L. Rev. 953 (September, 1995).

Stein, Jacob A. "The Quest for Colonel Wigmore". 19 No. 1 Litigation 43 (Fall, 1992).

Strickland, Ruth Ann and Richter H. Moore Jr. "Cameras in State Courts : A Historical Perspective". 78 Judicature 128 (Nov. - Dec. 1994).

Uelmen, Gerald F. "The Trial as Circus : Inherit the Wind". 30 U.S.F. L. Rev. 1221 (Summer, 1996).

Villarreal, Judith A. "God and Darwin in the Classroom : The Creation/Evolution Controversy". 64 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 335 (1988).

Vuoso, George. "Background, Responsibility, and Excuse". 98 Yale L. J. 1661 (1987).

White, Peny J. "It's a Wonderful Life, or Is It ? America Without Judicial Independence". 27 U. Mem. L. Rev. 1 (Fall, 1996).

Winick, Bruce J. "Forfeiture of Attorneys' Fees Under RICO and CCE and the Right to Counsel of Choice : The Constitutional Dilemna and How to Avoid It". 43 U. Miami L. Rev. 765 (March, 1989).

Woodhouse, Barbara Bennett. "Who Owns the Child ? : Meyer and Pierce and the Child as Property". 33 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 995 (Summer, 1992).

Young, Malcolm C. "Criminal Law and Urban Problems". Litigation and Administrative Practice Course Handbook Series. 150 PLI/Crim 11 (1989).

Zimmerman, Diane Leenheer. "False Light Invasion of Privacy : The Light That Failed". 64 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 364 (March, 1989).


Kronk, Philip Charles. "A Re-Analysis of the Leopold and Loeb Psychiatric Trial Testimony : An Object Relations Theory and Borderline State Perspective." PhD., 1978, University of Tennessee.

Majors, Randall Eugene. "Clarence Darrow in Defense of Leopold and Loeb : A Case Study in Forensic Argumentation." PhD. 1978, Indiana University.

Potter, Holly. "Leopold and Loeb : Texts and Contexts of an American Cause Celebre". M.A., 1991, McGill University (Canada). ISBN : 0-315-74720-X.